Geografi kejahatan, teori disorganisasi sosial, dan kajian terhadap kejahatan di ruang perkotaan

Mohammad Irvan Olii


Persebaran kejahatan di ruang perkotaan secara keruangan telah lama menjadi bagian kajian secara geografis.  Salah satu teori yang untuk membahas persebaran tersebut adalah teori disorganisasi sosial. Tulisan ini mengulas pemanfaatan teori disorganisasi sosial dalam sebuah artikel jurnal internasional karya Melo, Andersen dan Matias (2017) yang membahas geografi kejahatan pada sebuah kota di negara Brazil. Hasil ulasan memaparkan sejarah ringkas dari teori disorganisasi dan hubungannya dengan pengkajian permasalahan perkotaan, khususnya kejahatan, termasuk dasar-dasar pemikiran yang ada. Selain itu, hasil ulasan juga memaparkan kritik-kritik terhadap teori disorganisasi sosial. Pada bagian penutup akan dipaparkan perlunya perhatian terhadap adanya perbedaan pemahaman atas ruang kota yang didasarkan teori disorganisasi sosial dengan konteks ruang kota di Indonesia.

Kata Kunci: geografi kejahatan, teori disorganisasi sosial, ruang kota.


Full Text:

32-40 (PDF)


Bohm, R.M. & Vogel, B. L. (2011) A Primer on Crime and Delinquency Theory 3rd Edition, Wadsworth Cengage Learning: Belmont, CA.

Breeztke, G. D. (2018) “The concentration of urban crime in space by race: evidence from South Africa,” Urban Geography, 39:8, 1195-1220, DOI: 10.1080/02723638.2018.1440127.

Bruinsma, G.J.N. (2007) “Urbanization and Urban Crime: Dutch Geographical and Environmental Research.” Crime and Justice , Vol. 35, No. 1, Crime and Justice in the Netherlands, pp. 453-502, The University of Chicago Press diakses melalui URL:

Bruinsma, G.J.N, Pauwels, L.J.R., Weerman, F.M. & Bernasco, W. (2013) "Social Disorganization, Social Capital, Collective Efficacy and the Spatial Distribution of Crime and Offenders," British Journal of Criminology, 53, 942-963.

Bunting, A.M. & Stamatel, J. (2019) "Exploring geospatial characteristics of hashtag activism in Ferguson, Missouri: An application of social disorganization theory." Geoforum, 104, 55–62, DOI:10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.06.008.

Cancino, J.M., Martinez Jr., R.& Stowell, J.I. (2009) “The Impact of Neighborhood Context on Intragroup and Intergroup Robbery: The San Antonio Experience.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 623,Race, Crime, and Justice: Contexts and Complexities, May, 2009, pp. 12-24. Sage Publications, Inc. dan American Academy of Political and Social Science diakses melalui URL:

Ceccato, V. (2009) "Crime in a City in Transition: The Case of Tallinn, Estonia" Urban Studies 46(8) 1611–1638, July, DOI: 10.1177/0042098009105501.

Ceccato, V. & Oberwittler, D. (2008) "Comparing spatial patterns of robbery: Evidence from a Western and an Eastern European city" Cities, 25, 185–196, DOI:10.1016/j.cities.2008.04.002.

Cullen, F.T. & Agnew, R. (2011) Criminological Theory: past to present essential readings 4th Edition, Oxford University Press: New York.

Feng, J., Dong, Y. & Song, L. (2016) “A spatio-temporal analysis of urban crime in Beijing: Based on data for property crime.” Urban Studies, Vol. 53 (15) 3223–3245 DOI: 10.1177/0042098015612982.

Giddens, A. (1993) Sociology 2nd Edition, Polity Press: Cambridge.

Grubesic, T. H., Murray, A.T. & Mack, E.A. (2008) "Sex offenders, housing and spatial restriction zones" GeoJournal, 73:255–269, DOI:10.1007/s10708-008-9197-x.

Hagan, J. (1987) Modern Criminology: crime, criminal behavior, and its control, McGraw-Hill: New York.

Holt-Jensen, A. (2003) Geography: history and concepts, A students’ guide 3rd edition, Sage Publications: London-Thousand Oaks-New Delhi.

Knox, P. & Pinch, S. (2009) Urban Social Geography: an introduction, 6th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Pearson Education Ltd: Harlow, Essex, UK.

Krohn, M. "Control and Deterrence Theories of Criminality", dalam Sheley, J. F. (ed.) (1995) Criminology A Contemporary Handbook 2nd Edition, Wadsworth Publishing: Belmont, CA.

Kubrin, C. E. "Chapter 12 Social Disorganization Theory: then, now, and in the future," dalam Krohn, M.D., Lizotte, A. J. & Hall, G. P. (eds.) (2009) Handbook on Crime and Deviance, Springer:Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York.

Kubrin, C.E. & Wo, J.C. "Social Disorganization Theory's Greates Challenge: Linking Structural Characteristics to Crime in Socially Disorganized Communities," dalam Piquero, A.R. (ed.), (2016), The Handbook of Criminological Theory, John Wiley & Sons: West Sussex.

Law, J. & Quick, M. (2013) "Exploring links between juvenile offenders and social

disorganization at a large map scale: a Bayesian spatial modeling approach" Journal of Geographical Systems, 15:89–113, DOI:10.1007/s10109-012-0164-1.

LeBeau, J.L. & Leitner, M. (2011), "Introduction: Progress in Research on the Geography of Crime," The Professional Geographer, 63:2, 161-173, DOI: 10.1080/00330124.2010.547147.

Melo, S. N. D., Andersen, M.A. & Matias, L.F. (2017) "Geography of crime in a Brazilian context: an application of social disorganisation theory, Urban Geography, 38: 10, 1550-1572, DOI: 10.1080/02723638.2016.1255920.

Moyer, I. L. (2001) Criminological Theories: traditional and nontraditional voices and themes, Sage Publication: Thousand Oak.

Pacione, M. (2009) Urban Geography: a global perspective 3rd Edition, Routledge: London and New York.

Parker, K. F. & Stansfield, R. "Disadvantage, Disorganization and Crime," dalam Gerben Bruinsma dan David Wiesburd (eds.), (2014) Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Springer Reference: New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London.

Parks, M.J. (2014) Urban Poverty Traps: Neighbourhoods and Violent Victimisation and Offending in Nairobi, Kenya" Urban Studies, 51(9) 1812–1832, July, DOI: 10.1177/0042098013504144.

Pereira, D.V.S., Mota, C.M.M. & Andresen, M.A. (2017) "Social Disorganization and

Homicide in Recife, Brazil" International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, Vol. 61(14), 1570–1592, DOI: 10.1177/0306624X15623282.

Siegel, L. J. (2011) Criminology: the core 4th Edition, Wadsworth Cengage Learning: Belmont, CA.

Tierny, J. (2006) Criminology: theory and context, 2nd ed., Pearson Longman: Harlow, England.

Unwin, T. (1992) The Place of Geography, Prentice Hall, Pearson Education: Harlow.

Warner, B. D. (1999) "Whither? Social Disorganization Theory in an Era of Urbantransformation" Sociological Focus, Vol. 32, No. 1, Special Issue: Community, Inequality and Crime, February, pp. 99-113, Taylor & Francis, Ltd. Diakses melalui URL:

Weis, J.G., Crutchfield, R.D. & Bridges, G.S. (eds.), (1996) Readings: Crime Volume 1 Crime and Society, Pine Forge Press: Thousands Oaks, Ca.

Williams, F.P.& McShane, M. D. (2014) Criminological Theory 6th Edition, Pearson: Boston.

Ye, X. & Wu, L. (2011) "Analyzing the dynamics of homicide patterns in Chicago: ESDA and spatial panel approaches" Applied Geography, 31, 800-807, DOI:10.1016/j.apgeog.2010.08.006.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

View My Stats