Distribution of heavy metals, soil microbial enzymes and their relationship in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria

Mansur Abdul Mohammed, Emmanuel Adewale Olowolafe

Abstract


The increase in population and industrial growth has led to increased production of industrial and domestic waste which contain heavy metals in various forms. Therefore, affect the diversity and activities of soil microbes and subsequently affect environmental sustainability. This research aimed at assessing the distribution of heavy metals, soil enzymes, and evaluate the functional relationship if any. The study area was divided into two locations as contaminated and control; thus, each location one square kilometre was demarcated and divided into 25 small square (grid). A Sample was collected in each grid from 0 – 15 cm depth using point composite sampling technique. The properties investigated are heavy metals, enzymes, pH, and soil temperature. The results of the analyses were subjected to statistical analyses to undertake one-way analysis of variance, and a t-test of means at 𝛂 value of <0.05, also correlation, and regression at a P<0.05 significant level. The results revealed that there is a gradual accumulation of all heavy metals and the concentration is higher in the contaminated than control locations. The soil is potentially polluted with Cd is clean from Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, and Cu. High values of heavy metals were discovered in the dry season than the wet season due to rainfall which enhanced the dissolution, leaching, and runoff of heavy metals which is capable of removing the metals from the subsurface. High pH and temperature in the contaminated location influenced the toxicity and microbial activity respectively, this results in high enzymatic activity in the contaminated location. Favourable environmental conditions in the wet season led to the higher activity of the enzymes than the dry season. The finding also revealed that phosphatase and urease were negatively correlated with Cd and Ni. Inversely, dehydrogenase was negatively correlated with Ni and Zn. It was concluded that the determination of the heavy metals and enzymes reflects the microbial activities in soils and is considered as soil quality indicators.

Keywords: soil enzymes, contamination, soil microbes, biological indicator, soil quality

DOI:Β http://dx.doi.org/10.7454/jglitrop.v4i2.81


Full Text:

103-115 (PDF)

References


in soil along irrigated land around Normand’s Land, Kano State, Nigeria. Bayero journal of physics and mathematical sciences, 10(1), 19 – 26

Adamu, G.K. (2014). An Assessment of the Characteristics and Potentials of Fadama Soils in TheReaches of Two Major Stream in Kano State, Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Geography, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria, 6 – 19

Al-Edresy, M. A., Wasel, S. O., & Al-Hajibu, H. A. (2019). Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in coastal sediments between Al-Haymah and Al-Mokha, South Red Seas, Yemen. International Journal of Hydrology, 3(2), 159 – 173

Amalo, N. D., Owhonda, C. I., Kufre, S. U., Amir, R. S., Mark, O. O., & Prince, C. M. (2019). Spatial and temporal distribution and contamination assessment of heavy metal in WojiCreek. Environmental Research Communications1,1 - 10 https://doi.org/10.1088/2515-7620/ab4a8c

Anderson, J. (1974). Wet Digestion Versus Dry for the Analysis of Fish Tissue for Trace Metals. Afon Absorbtion Newsletter

Audu, A., & Idowu, A. (2015). The effect of the Challawa Industrial Estate on the physicochemical properties and heavy metal levels of portable water supply in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria, Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 3, 17-22, https://doi:10.4236/gep.2o15.32003

Ayoade, J. A. (1983). Introduction to Climatology of the Tropics, Ibadan Spectrum Book Limited, Sunshine House, Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ibadan – Nigeria

Bichi, M. H., & Bello, F. U. (2013). Heavy metals in soils used for irrigation of crops along River Tatsawarki in Kano, International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, 8 (4), 1-17

Brady, N. C., & Weil, R. R. (2015). Nature and Properties of Soils, 14th Edition, PearsonEducation Inc, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey

Buba, L.F. (2014). Climate Change (Eds), In Tanlo, A. I & Momale, S.B, Kano Environment, Society and Development, Adonis and Abbey Publishers Ltd, Place Primea Road, London, SE1 75J UK.

Dawaki, M. U., & Alhasan, J. (2008). Irrigation and heavy metals pollution in soils under urban and peri-urban agricultural systems in Jakara river site. Kano State, Nigeria. International Journal of Pure and Applied Science, 1(3), 37 – 42

Delbari, S. A., & Kulkarni, D. K. (2011). Seasonal variation in heavy metals concentration agricultural soils in Tehran, Iran. Bioscience Discovery, 2(3): 333

Dian, C. (2018). Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial Community. IOP Conf. Series, Earth Environmental Science, 113, 1 – 5

Dibofori-Orji, A. N., & Edori, O. S. (2015). Analysis of some heavy metals in processed cassava flour sold along the roadside of a busy highway, Archive of Applied Science Research, 7(2), 15 – 19

Donaji, J., Gonzalez, M., Guillermo, E. R., Maria del, C. C., Angeles, M. T., Letecia, C. Y., maria, E., Garcia, A., & Cesar, A. I. H. (2018). Evaluation of biological activities of soil in a gradient concentration of Arsenic and Lead in Villa de la Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Soil Contamination and Alternatives for Sustainable Development, 35 - 55 http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.80031

Ebong, G. A., Ettesam, E. S., & Dan E. U. (2020). Impact of Abbatoir wastes on trace metal accumulation, speciation, and human health-related problems in soils within Southern Nigeria. Air, Soil and Water Research, 13, 1 – 14, http://DOI:10.1177/1178622119898430

Egejuru, O. L., Akubugwo, E. I., and Ude V. C. (2014). Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties, Microbial Loads and Enzymes Activity Studies of Agrochemicals on the Imo-River Basin Farms in Imo State Nigeria, International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3 (2): 776-786, http://www.ijcmas.com

Eremasi, Y. B., Alagoa, K. J., & Daworiye, P. (2015). Water quality evaluation and heavy metals concentration of Kolo Creek, Imiringi, Bayelsa State. International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology, 2(2), 61-66

Fazekosova, D., & Fazekas, J. (2020). Soil quality and heavy metals pollution of iron ore mines in Nizna Slana. Sustainability, 12, 1 – 15 https://doi:10.3390/su12062549

Friedlova, M. (2010). The influence of heavy metals on soil biological and chemical properties.Journal of Water and soil Resources, 5(10), 21 – 27

Gang, Y., Faqin, D., Mingxue, L., Xiaoqin, N., Meirong, Z, Changhui, P., Huai, C., Hongfu, W., Pingping, W., & Wei, Z. (2017). Interactive Effect of Radioactive and Heavy-Metal

Contamination on Soil Enzyme Activity in a Former Uranium Mine. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 27(3), 1343-135. https://DOI:10.15244/pjoes/76182

Haliru, A. H., Law, P. L., & Suhaiza, S. O. (2014). Heavy metals concentration levels in the soil at Lake Geriyo irrigation site, Yola, Adamawa state, Northern Eastern Nigeria,Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 2(2), 19 – 26. https://doi:10.11648/j.ijema.20140202.17

Haruna, Y. I., Koki, F. S., Nura, A. M., & Ibrahim, M. U. (2019). Determination of spatial distributions of heavy metals about River Jakara, Kano Nigeria. Bayero journal of physics and mathematical sciences, 10(1), 76 – 84

Hong – Gui, D., Teng – feng, D. U., Ming-hu, L. I. & Xuxu, D. (2013). Comprehensive assessment model of heavy metal pollution in soil. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 7, 5286 – 5296

Imam, T. S., Ugya, Y. & Balarabe, M. L. (2015). Comparative study on the use of Eucchornia cressipes to remove some heavy metals from Romi Stream: A Case Study of Kaduna Refinery Wastewater. Proceeding of 6th International Conference of Nigeria Association of Hydrological Science, ABU Zaria, 331-339

Kausar, F. A., Ahmad, S. R., & Baqar, M. (2019). Evaluation of surface water quality on spatio-temporal gradient using multivariate statistical techniques: a case study of River Chenab, Pakistan. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 28(4), 2645 – 2657, http://doi:10.15244/pjoes/92938

Lal, R. (2006). Encyclopedia of Soil Science, 2nd Eds., The Ohio State University Colombus, Ohio,U.S.A. Newyork London, 1 and 2: 817 – 1813, Taylor and Francis group

Masindi, V., & Muedi, K. L. (2018). Environmental contamination by heavy metals. Intechopen, 115 – 133, http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.76082

Mohammed, M. A. (2017). Assessment of Effects of Some Heavy Metals On Chemical andBiological Properties of Soils around Industrial Area Of Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD. Thesis, Department of Geography, Nigerian Defence Academy Kaduna

Mohammed, M. A. (2016). Effect of soil pH and total sulfur on microbial biomass carbon along River Getsi, Kano State, Nigeria, International Journal of Science for Global Sustainability, = 2(3), 110 – 115

Nannipieri, P., Ascher, J., Ceccherini, M.T., Landi, L., Pietramellara, G. & Renella, G. (2003).Microbial diversity and soil function, European Journal of the soils Sciences, 54, 655-670, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1351-0754.2003.0556.x

Nkwunonwo, U. C., Odika, P. O. & Onyi, N. I. (2020). A review of the health implications of heavy metals in food chain in Nigeria. the Scientific World Journal, 2020, 1 – 11, https://doi.org/10.1155/20206594109

Osakwe, S. A., Akpoveta, O. V., Okoh, B. E., & Ize-Iyamu, O. K. (2012). Chemical forms ofheavy metals in soils around municipal waste dumpsites in Asaba Metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 24(1), 23-30

Sarkar, D., & Haldar, A. (2005). Physical and Chemical Methods in Soil Analysis: FundamentalConcepts of Analytical Chemistry and Instrumental Technique. Newage International, Publishers, 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganji, New Delhi-India

Tang, J.; Zhang, J.; Ren, L.; Zhou, Y.; Gao, J.; Luo, L.; Yang, Y.; Peng, Q.; Huang, H.; & Chen, A. (2019). Diagnosis of soil contamination using microbiological indices: A review on heavy metal pollution. Journal of Environmental. Management, 242, 121–130, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.04.061

Thalmann, A. (1968). Laboratory method for determine dehydrogenase activity in soil usingTriphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), Landwirtsh. Forsch, 21, 249-258.

Utgikar, V. P., Tabak, H. H., Haines, J. R., & Govind, R. (2003). Quantification of toxic inhibitory impact of copper and zinc on mixed cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 82 (3), 306-312

Wiatrowska, K., Komisarek, J. & Dluzewski, P. (2014). Effect of heavy metals on the activity of Dehydrogenases, Phosphatases and Urease in natural and artificially Contaminated.Journal of Elementology, 20(3), 743 – 756, http://DOI:10.5601/jelem.2014.19.2.675

Wyszkowski, M. (2019). Soil contamination with copper and its effect on selected soil properties after applying neutralizing substances. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 28 (4), 2465 – 2471, http://DOI:10.15244/pjoes/90357

Xie-feng, Y., Jiu-ming, Z., Li, T., & Jian-hua, G. (2017). The effect of heavy metal contamination on the bacterial community structure at Jiaozhou Bay, China, Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 48,71–78

Zantu, M. J., & Bremner, J. M. (1975). Comparison of methods of assaying urease activity in soils, Soil. Biol. Biochem, 7, 291-295.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7454/jglitrop.v4i2.81

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


View My Stats